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The grammatical structure of an infinitival clause may differ from that of a corresponding finite clause. For example, in German , the infinitive form of the verb usually goes to the end of its clause, whereas a finite verb in an independent clause typically comes in second position.
Following certain verbs or prepositions, infinitives commonly do have an expressed subject, e. As these examples illustrate, the subject of the infinitive is in the objective case them, him in contrast to the nominative case that would be used with a finite verb, e.
The unusual case for the subject of an infinitive is an example of exceptional case-marking , where the infinitive clause's role being an object of a verb or preposition want, for overpowers the pronoun's subjective role within the clause.
In some languages, infinitives may be marked for grammatical categories like voice , aspect , and to some extent tense. This may be done by inflection , like with the Latin perfect and passive infinitives, or by periphrasis with the use of auxiliary verbs , like with the Latin future infinitives or the English perfect and progressive infinitives.
Latin has present, perfect and future infinitives, with active and passive forms of each. English has infinitive constructions that are marked periphrastically for aspect: These can also be marked for passive voice as can the plain infinitive:.
Further constructions can be made with other auxiliary-like expressions, like to be going to eat or to be about to eat , which have future meaning. Perfect infinitives are also found in other European languages that have perfect forms with auxiliaries similarly to English.
Regarding English , the term "infinitive" is traditionally applied to the unmarked form of the verb the "plain form" when it forms a non-finite verb , whether or not introduced by the particle to.
Hence sit and to sit , as used in the following sentences, would each be considered an infinitive:. The form without to is called the bare infinitive ; the form introduced by to is called the full infinitive or to-infinitive.
The other non-finite verb forms in English are the gerund or present participle the -ing form , and the past participle — these are not considered infinitives.
Moreover, the unmarked form of the verb is not considered an infinitive when it is forms a finite verb: Certain auxiliary verbs are defective in that they do not have infinitives or any other non-finite forms.
This applies to the modal verbs can , must , etc. Periphrases can be employed instead in some cases, like to be able to for can , and to have to for must.
It also applies to the auxiliary do , like used in questions, negatives and emphasis like described under do -support. Infinitives are negated by simply preceding them with not.
Of course the verb do when forming a main verb can appear in the infinitive. However, the auxiliary verbs have used to form the perfect and be used to form the passive voice and continuous aspect both commonly appear in the infinitive: Huddleston and Pullum 's Cambridge Grammar of the English Language does not use the notion of the "infinitive" "there is no form in the English verb paradigm called 'the infinitive'" , only that of the infinitival clause , noting that English uses the same form of the verb, the plain form , in infinitival clauses that it uses in imperative and present-subjunctive clauses.
A matter of controversy among prescriptive grammarians and style writers has been the appropriateness of separating the two words of the to -infinitive as in "I expect to happily sit here".
For details of this, see split infinitive. Opposing linguistic theories typically do not consider the to -infinitive a distinct constituent , instead regarding the scope of the particle to to cover an entire verb phrase; thus, to buy a car is parsed like to [buy [a car]] , rather not like [to buy] [a car].
The bare infinitive and the to -infinitive have a variety of uses in English. The two forms are mostly in complementary distribution — certain contexts call for one, and certain contexts for the other; they are not normally interchangeable, except in occasional instances like after the verb help , where either can be used.
The infinitive is also the usual dictionary form or citation form of a verb. The form listed in dictionaries is the bare infinitive, although the to -infinitive is often used in referring to verbs or in defining other verbs: For further detail and examples of the uses of infinitives in English, see Bare infinitive and To -infinitive in the article on uses of English verb forms.
The original Proto-Germanic ending of the infinitive was -an , with verbs derived from other words ending in -jan or -janan. In German it is -en "sagen" , with -eln or -ern endings on a few words based on -l or -r roots "segeln", "ändern".
The use of zu with infinitives is similar to English to , but is less frequent than in English. German infinitives can form nouns, often expressing abstractions of the action, in which case they are of neuter gender: In Dutch infinitives also end in -en zeggen — to say , sometimes used with te similar to English to , e.
In North Germanic languages the final -n was lost from the infinitive as early as — AD, reducing the suffix to -a. The infinitives of these languages are inflected for passive voice through the addition of -s or -st to the active form.
The suffixes -mk and -sk later merged to -s , which evolved to -st in the western dialects. The loss or reduction of -a in active voice in Norwegian did not occur in the passive forms -ast , -as , except for some dialects that have -es.
The other North Germanic languages have the same vowel in both forms. In , Infinity Ward merged with Neversoft, bringing together a pool of highly talented and skilled developers under one roof, with the goal of creating the best games possible.
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